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An Understanding of the Structure of an Atom - Chemistry GCSE

We all are familiar with the word atom in chemistry . It has been derived from a Greek word a-tomio which means “uncut-able” or “non- divisible”. According to the Indian and Greek philosophers the continued subdivisions of matter leads to atom which cannot be divided further. Hence they are the smallest existing particles.


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The atom consist of three subatomic particles namely :

  • PROTONS – it is the  stable subatomic particle present in nuclei of all the atoms, with a positive electric charge and equal in magnitude to that of electron .
  • NEUTRONS– the subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton, without electric charge. It is also present in the atomic nuclei except ordinary hydrogen.
  • ELECTRONS-  it's the stable subatomic particle with charge of negative electricity acting the career of electricity.


 Relative charge
 Relative mass
 Position in the atom
 In the nucleus
 Revolving around the nucleus in shells
 In the nucleus
  • Protons have positive charge as the first letter indicates P for positive. Same is with neutrons as their first letter indicate N for neural or no charge. The left charge with us is negative so electron has negative charge on it.
  • Relative masses are not the actual masses of the subatomic particles. They are the masses in relation to each other . As proton and neutron are the heaviest particles there relative masses are denoted by 1. Electrons are said to be 2000 times  lighter than both so it is denoted by 1/2000 in relation to proton and neutron.
  • Now as we know proton and neutron are the heaviest particles and cannot move  so they are present in the nucleus. On the other hand electron being the lightest, revolve around the nucleus in their shells.


Now we know that electrons are present in the shells surrounding the nucleus, but they cannot be arranged randomly. They occupy the shells according to their electronic configuration which is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in the orbitals in a specific pattern.
Electron holding capacity of the shells

Shell 1
2 electrons
Shell 2
8 electrons
Shell 3
8 electrons
Shell 4
16 electrons

 Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons so the electronic configuration will be – 2,8,1

Image result for sodium pinterest atom
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Chlorine (Cl) has 17 electrons so the electronic configuration will be – 2,8,7
Image result for chlorine pinterest atom
Image courtesy: wikimedia


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  • The symbol of respective elements are written at the place of X in the picture above.
  • A represents the Atomic mass / mass number of the element which is equal to the number of nucleons ( proton and neutron) in the nucleus .
  • Z represents the Atomic number which is equal to the number of protons in a nucleus ( also remember the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons )
We can summarise this concept with following formulas:
Atomic number (Z) = the number of protons present in the nucleus
Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
Number of electrons = Z
Number of neutrons = A-Z

Example :  6C12
With this example we can find out the values of all the three subatomic particles :
Here the Atomic number (Z) is 6 = the number of protons = the number of electrons
Number of protons = 6
Number of electrons = 6
The mass number (A)= 12
         A = number of protons + number of neutrons
        12= 6 + number of neutrons
Number of neutrons = 12-6 = 6

Isotopes are the atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Since the Atomic number is equal to the number of protons and mass number is the summation of protons and neutrons, we can also define isotopes are the element having same Atomic number but different mass number.

For example :
6C12            6C13           6C14
We have 3 isotopes of carbon having same Atomic number but different mass number. On the basis of calculations taught in the previous section we can take out the values of subatomic particles present in all three of them to satisfy our first definition of isotopes.


Mahima Laroyia, is an Oxford Postgraduate in Integrative Biosciences who has more than 8 years of tutoring experience in tutoring students Maths and Sciences from KS2 up to A-levels. She specializes in providing custom and tailor made study materials to school students to make Maths and Sciences easier and fun.Find me at: 

Personify Your Business in Social Media Through a Brand Voice

You have taken everything into account before finally doing social media marketing. You have  exemplary content and captivating images or GIFs. But most social media marketers fail to be particular about one important thing – your business’ brand voice.
What is a brand voice exactly? It is the linguistic representation of your business. Okay, that sounds too technical. Whenever you write, post, or show something to promote your brand, you try to send a message to your audience. This is usually done through content. Your content is your business’ way to talk to customers and convert your audience into customers.
Now, since your business will be talking, imagine it embodied by a person. This person will be the representation of your business whenever it talks to the audience. The way this person speaks, the tone, and the language “he or she” uses is the brand voice.
Why would you want to have a brand voice? Can’t you just say anything you want about your product? Well, of course, you could. However, developing your brand voice has a number of benefits.
The personification of the business – Think about it, people are more interested in talking to people. They are most likely not to talk to robots. Talking to a company or a business can be intimidating. Personifying your business makes it easier for your audience and customers connect to what you are trying to say.
Word-of-mouth marketing – If your voice is engaging, then your audience will enjoy reading, listening, or interacting with your business. Because they enjoy your content, there is a great probability that they will talk about you with other people. In effect, other people will be aware of your brand too!
Distinction – Developing your business’ brand voice will set you apart from your competitors. Remember, each person is unique, and this belief should trickle down to your brand voice. In effect, having a brand voice can make you recognizable from other similar businesses as yours.
Now that you are convinced to develop a brand voice, what should it entail? Tone, character, purpose, and language should all be embodied in your brand voice. You probably already have a certain style when you post in social media platforms. However, here are some questions to help you refine your brand voice:
Tone – Take this as the tone of voice of a person. Is your tone upbeat or perky? Is it serious and technical? Is your content conversational or informative?
Character – This is the personality that your brand voice exudes. Is the personification of your brand friendly or authoritative? Is it inspiring and warm? Is it sophisticated and professional? Think of adjectives that you would use to describe the personality of your business.
Purpose – Each time you converse with someone, you have a purpose. This should also be radiated in your brand voice. Do you intend to sell? Or do you intend to educate? Would you like your brand voice to be engaging or informative?
Language – Another aspect of the brand voice is the language being used in the content you post on social media. Would you be using slang and colloquialisms? Would it include jargon? Would you be using scientific words? Or will be simple and straightforward with your language?
In developing or refining the brand voice of your business, you should take these aspects into account. Of course, you can mix and match the personalities you have in mind so long as it represents your business. The brand voice should also be consistent all throughout communications within and going out of your business.
Using a consistent brand voice in your social media posts can make your business easily recognizable. This is what your brand is all about in the first place. Now, what personality would your business give off?

Author Bio

Kelly E Walsh lives in South Carolina. She is a graduate of BS in Computer Science but preferred pursuing her writing career instead. Mostly because she loves telling stories and sharing her knowledge through writing. She is currently writing for on a regular basis and does ghost writing for some companies as well. 

5 Things You Absolutely Hate About Blogging

No matter whether you are a veteran or a newbie who has just joined the blogging ranks, you are bound to come across certain setbacks that will ruin your initial view of the cyber-writing world. Not to burst your bubble, but even if you are still only considering starting your own blog, these will most likely be some of the things that will continuously get on your nerves.

It doesn’t take too long for your writing inspiration to take a nosedive, especially if you have a narrow niche. Constantly finding new topics with fresh perspectives and offering original content without resorting to rehashing can be extremely challenging, thus turning your otherwise enjoyable writing process into a real buzzkill.
There will be days when you cannot put together a meaningful sentence despite your love for writing, and you will spend hours trying to remember all those incredibly unique topics. Dealing with in a business where everything relies on regular posts can be extremely challenging. Sometimes the very reason you became interested in blogging in the first place may also be the reason to quit doing it.

The hassle of hosting:
With so many decisions and issues on your plate, especially at the very beginning of your blogging career, finding the right support system and allocating your modest budget can be overwhelming. Even with a reliable platform such as WordPress, you need to assess your options before settling for the most cost-effective and manageable one, and hosting is on top of the list when it comes to the features you need to keep in mind.
In addition to having complete control over your website, various WordPress hosting solutions are meant to give you a peace of mind, security, flexibility and many other wonderful perks. However, you need a greater know-how in order to set up everything on your own, and that might make you anxious or frustrated until you get the hang of things.

The sound of silence:
No matter how rewarding the process is, building a blogging website in the infinite universe of existing successful blogs usually doesn’t result in an overnight boom. Going back to your blog daily to add content that no one seems to respond to, trying to establish a meaningful connection with your audience, struggling to find ways to make yourself stand out in the blogosphere crowd, to what end?
If anything, blogging will test your patience, and the silence of such a crowded space as the World Wide Web can have you question every choice you make. Rather than thinking that you’re doing everything wrong and giving up, you need to prepare yourself for weeks, even months of slow-paced, almost imperceptible progress before you see any real impact.

Time management:
Juggling your potential day job, personal life, social events and your soaring blogging career can make you wish you could clone yourself in order to make everything work. Every minute of your time seems painfully stuffed with chores, scheduled posts, writing assignments and dull grown-up responsibilities you’d gladly skip for a day at the beach.
At first, it’s the struggles of no engagement that get to you most, while as soon as you reach a certain audience it will feel as if your days could double and you still wouldn’t be able to respond to everyone and keep up with your workload, or bask in the glory of your online success. However, keep in mind that once you find your own routine, your blogging life will be much more fulfilling.

In addition to having to write your own posts, think of every milestone, short-term and long-term goal, communicate with your readers and manage your personal life, you also have to deal with the lovely proofreading process. Not only do you have to spend hours on writing your posts, but now you have to check your grammar, punctuation, SEO elements, and originality, to name a few.
You will start dealing with language questions you never knew existed and fact-checking through hundreds of sites with spammy content before you come across a valid resource you can actually quote. But if you stay persistent, this will become one of those natural processes that no longer eat away at your nerves. It just takes time before you get there.
With the numerous perks of being your own boss come many of your pet peeves that you need to tackle in order to enjoy your blogging evolution. But don’t give up just yet, because you will soon realize that the rewards of a successful blog will always outshine the nuisances.

Nate Vickery is a business consultant and an online author mostly focused on startup and SMB marketing. He is also an executive editor at

How to Get a Job Out of College

Are you getting closer to your graduation now? Yes, soon you will dive into an exciting world of paying bills. After throwing a cap into the air and having fun at a graduation party, you may wake up next morning feeling a headache that might mean not only a hangover but also an understanding of an urgent need to find a job. Avoiding that is possible if you start thinking about your future as early as possible. Actually, the best time for this would be right now!

All students happen to find themselves in the same situation when looking for a job after college. On the one hand, the number of opportunities seems huge. There are hundreds of ways open in front of you, and you are free to choose any of them. On the other hand, most of the recent graduates get lost, not knowing exactly where to move on. So, what should you do when you’re fresh out of college?

Keep Your Mind Open
First, you should realize that you will hardly get a job at Microsoft or on Wall Street right after graduating from college. So, the key thing you should keep in mind when starting your job search is that you need to be open to everything.
Your first job is the platform you will base your future career on. At the beginning, you have no experience and practical knowledge of how everything actually works. So, don’t hurry to turn down the offers if the position doesn’t involve exactly what you wanted and if the salary is lower. This is certainly not your last job. Remember that after gaining the necessary experience and knowledge, you will be able to change this job for a better one.
Now, try to send as many applications as possible so that you could have more worthy options to choose from. It will be wise to broaden your search. That is, if you focus on a narrow field, it will be hard to find a job quickly. For instance, if you dream of a career in public relations sphere, you may google marketing jobs for recent college graduates.
The next piece of advice may seem opposite to the previous one – try to define as clearly as you can what job you actually want to get. If you are ready to spend 8 hours a day in the office, there will always be lots of options for you. But if you prefer a more flexible schedule, you may always consider freelance opportunities. Being a student, you have probably typed “jobs online for college students” into a search query at least couple of times. So, why not enter your adulthood with a remote job too?
Work on Your Image
In today’s world, social media activity is getting more than just a way to spend leisure time. Many employers check the candidates online before interviews, so you need to make your social profiles look good.
Think about how it can represent you. Follow communities that represent your personal and professional interests, fill in all information concerning your experience and education, be careful with what you are posting or retweeting on your profiles, etc. Try to show that you are a serious person interested in getting a serious job.
One of the useful recommendations for those who are in their last year of college is to do an internship as early as possible. Besides giving you a practical knowledge of how the job in your field actually looks like, it may give you some advantages in future. Getting an internship in a reputable company may open up great opportunities for you.
Pay Attention to Your Cover Letter

When you start scouring the Web in search for a good job, you may notice that there aren’t tons of career opportunities for recent college graduates. So, in order not to get lost in the shuffle, you should create a powerful resume that will impress potential employers. You will always find numerous tips and examples online. But remember the main thing – your aim is to demonstrate you are the right candidate for the job.
Some basic points to consider when writing a resume:
  • Keep it simple: cover everything that is necessary, but don’t give too much information. No one will spend half an hour on reading your resume.
  • Focus on what is important in your field only – if you are applying for a position in IT-company, mentioning your summer job as a shop assistant is unnecessary;
  • Leave all the contact information in the resume – if it is easy to get in touch with you, chances to get a response will increase.
The process of beginning a career may seem scary, but remember that everyone has been there.

Nobody starts with an executive position, but your start can become a solid ground for your future

career. A number of recent college graduate jobs is actually not as small as it may seem first. You

only need confidence, desire, and real efforts to succeed.

Lisa Griffin is a blogger and freelance writer. Her lifestyle credo is “Education is the most powerful weapon, so we have to use it with a bright mind”.

5 Ways to Become a Freelance Writer Who Can Start a Successful Business

Since the evolution of the online environment, people have been looking for new ways to earn extra money. Being able to work from home is quite satisfying, and lots of professionals would rather work that way instead of signing up for an 9 to 5 job.

The act of working for someone using only PC and Internet connection is called freelancing.

Freelancing is a very broad term, as it can refer to more aspects and more domains of activity. For example, a freelancer can be an engineer, a designer, a virtual assistant, and so on. In the present marketplace conditions, writing is a highly emphasized skill which is also highly demanded.

Freelance writing could also mean more things: writing books as a ghostwriter, creating web content, crafting SEO content, writing technical content, and so on. If you're good with words, you just have to choose a niche and begin perfecting your skills in that specific field of activity.

Because of the fact that freelancing is so popular nowadays, there are lots of available writing gigs and job opportunities out there. In order to be a successful writing freelancer, you must possess the following elements:

Awesome writing skills

If you expect to make a living while freelancing, it'll only be accomplishable if the quality of your content is high.
Experience in the field

When clients are looking for freelancers, they're often considering their experience in the field. More than often they will even request a sample of your writing in order to make their decision easier.
Good communication skills

A successful freelancer is always professional with his clients. That means no missed deadlines, no unexpected offline time, and also no changes in the quality of the content.
Compatible and professional client

If the employee is professional, it's obvious that the client must also offer the same level of professionalism. Compatibility must also exist in order for such a relationship to work.

Time, commitment, and consistency

The last and the most important aspect of a successful freelancing career would be the commitment and the level of implication that you show. You must treat it very seriously, and always commit to finishing your duties. 

You should also be consistent with what you do; writing a few articles and then giving up is never going to bring you the level of success that you desire.

Turning Freelancing into a Business

1. Blog + Affiliate Marketing

As a freelance writer, you have probably developed your writing skills up to the point where you can start your own online business. You can create a niche blog and fill it with useful content. Let's talk about the start-up process and see how you should start taking action:

a) Choose a niche market that has enough demand in order to be worth pursuing

For example, you can go for the weight loss niche, which is a highly competitive niche where marketers fight over google positions, social media awareness, and so on. The reason? Well, it is health products have a high demand and an attractive price. 

b) Create unique and valuable content, and educate your target audience consistently

No one reads a blog that sucks. If your readers don't enjoy your content...which could be its style, its quality, and the value it provides, they will stop visiting. Make sure you provide enough value to the reader. If he feels that he learns something new, if he feels that he's productive, he'll love you and buy from you.

c) Promote your blog, create a list, and sell Affiliate products

Start promoting your blog by ensuring that your content contains enough SEO elements. Your on-site optimization should also be taken care of. Then, start focusing on social media promotion and begin redirecting traffic to your blog.

Offer them an incentive to join your e-mail newsletter. A free e-book for example or the promise of exclusive content and discounts. When they're enrolled, you can always contact them and promote your products.

Find an affiliate offer; if your blog is about football, start selling balls from Nike for example - or, if you are aiming at women in spot, start selling Nike sports bras (read more here). You can also choose to promote Amazon's products and get cuts for each and every purchase your referrer makes in a 24 hours’ time range.

2. Write Your Own Digital E-book 

Amazon Kindle is the biggest digital assets network that gives you the opportunity to come up with a book that could soon become an Amazon bestseller. Amazing reach, a lot of brand awareness, and so many sales! Amazon is not the only platform that can help you monetize your e-books.
Start looking for book topics. I'd recommend going for the non-fiction niche, as it's extremely popular in the present moment. If you have a skill that you can teach or some powerful information, don't hesitate to turn it into a book and sell if for a couple of dollars. 

3. Create Digital Courses

The e-learning industry is in a continuous boom for a few years now. People have started to enjoy learning from digital e-courses because it offers them a lot of possibilities and choices. The traditional education could never focus on so many subjects, and the average student does not have access to more than...let's say ten fields of activity while still in college.

There are quite a lot of networks that make it possible for individual publishers to get a lot of exposure to their courses. Again, if you're good at something, consider teaching others and collect the rewards.

4. Start a Content Writing or Copywriting Service

Being a content writing service found is nothing like being a freelancer. You're basically switching positions. You will be the client, while your employees will be dedicated writers that you'll have to pay. Find content writing opportunities and assign your writers to them.

You'll pay them 1$ per 100 words, while the deal you've previously made will get you 3$ per 100 words. Cut the taxes, and calculate your profits. Australian Writings is a really good example. Check it out, and see how they approach this business model.

5. Develop an SEO Company

Just like the content ones, the SEO services are high priced and highly demanded in the present moment. Turn your writing skills into a money making machine by working with companies and clients that are looking to improve their search engines rankings.

Learn everything that's necessary in order to master this skill, and start searching for clients. You should create a brand, give it a name, a story, and start raising awareness. If you want to expand, hire some SEO writers and offer SEO packages such as content + backlinks + social signals.


Transforming your professional life isn't quite easy. You have certain responsibilities, expectations, and life standards, and it isn't easy to bail them and start something else. BUT. If what you're looking for is something that improves the quality of your life, you should definitely take your chances and go for it.

Being a freelancer gives you many benefits, but you have no clue what entrepreneurship will bring you. It's a whole different thing. A business can ultimately be automated; therefore, you'll have more time to take care of your most important issues and aspects of the business.

Author :
Jessica Freeman is passionate about studying and journalism. She finds her calling in making others interested in topics of education, blogging, and freelance.